The Association Between Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and the Number of Covid-19 Confirmed Cases and Deaths in the United States: Geospatial Study

Link to article at PubMed

Johnson K, et al. medRxiv 2020.


BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-Cov2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as an entry point to the cell. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for the novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) with poor outcomes. We hypothesized that the rate of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) use is associated with the rate of Covid-19 confirmed cases and deaths.

METHODS: We conducted a geospatial study using publicly available county-level data. The Medicare ACEIs and ARBs prescription rate was exposure. The Covid-19 confirmed case and death rates were outcomes. Spatial autoregression models were adjusted for the percentage of Black residents, children, residents with at least some college degree, median household income, air quality index, CVD hospitalization rate in Medicare beneficiaries, and CVD death rate in a total county population.

RESULTS: The ACEI use had no effect on Covid-19 confirmed case rate. An average ACEIs use (compared to no-use) was associated with a higher Covid-19 death rate by 1.1 (95%CI 0.4-1.8)%. If the use of ACEIs increases by 0.5% for all counties, the Covid-19 death rate will drop by 0.4% to 0.7(95%CI 0.3-1.1)%; P<0.0001. An average ARBs use (compared to no-use) was associated with a higher Covid-19 confirmed case rate (by 4.2; 95%CI 4.1-4.3 %) and death rate (by 1.1; 95%CI 0.7-1.5 %). Each percent increase in ARBs use was associated with an increase in confirmed case rate by 0.2(0.03-0.4)% and death rate by 0.14(0.08-0.21)%.

CONCLUSIONS: ARBs, but not ACEIs use rate, is associated with Covid-19 confirmed case rate.

PMID:32577681 | PMC:PMC7302286 | DOI:10.1101/2020.05.31.20118802

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