Acute kidney injury following the use of different proton pump inhibitor regimens: A real-world analysis of post-marketing surveillance data

Link to article at PubMed

Chen G, et al. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020.


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent evidence has concerned acute kidney injury (AKI) after the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) application. There are few real-world studies to compare the occurrences, clinical features, and prognosis of AKI related to various PPI regimens. We aimed to evaluate and compare the links between different PPIs and AKI in a large population by investigating the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) until recently.

METHODS: Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were used in data mining to screen the suspected AKI after different PPIs based on the FAERS from January 2004 to December 2019. The times to onset, fatality, and hospitalization rates of PPI-associated AKI were also investigated.

RESULTS: We identified 19 522 PPI-associated AKIs, which appeared to influence more middle-aged patients than elderly ones (53.04% vs 33.94%). Women were more affected than men (55.42% vs 44.58%). Lansoprazole appeared a stronger AKI association than other PPIs, based on the highest reporting odds ratio (reporting odds ratio = 20.8, 95% confidence interval = 20.16, 21.46), proportional reporting ratio (proportional reporting ratio = 15.55, χ2 = 73 899.68), and empirical Bayes geometric mean (empirical Bayes geometric mean = 15.15, 95% confidence interval = 14.76). The median time to AKI onset was 446 (interquartile range [IQR] 16-2176) days after PPI administration. PPIs showed a significant difference in average time to AKI onset (P < 0.001), with the shortest of 9 (IQR 3-25) days for rabeprazole and the longest of 1221 (IQR 96.5-2620) days for esomeprazole. PPI-associated AKI generally led to a 5.69% fatality rate and an 8.94% hospitalization rate. The highest death rate occurred in rabeprazole (15.35%).

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the FAERS database, we profiled AKI related to various PPIs with more details in occurrences, clinical characteristics, and prognosis. Concern should be paid for PPIs when applied to patients with a tendency for AKI.

PMID:32542684 | DOI:10.1111/jgh.15151

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