Lee BJ, et al. Ann Pharmacother 2020.
Objective: To review the current literature describing pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), efficacy, and safety of linezolid and daptomycin for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) faecium. Data Sources: A literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE databases was conducted (from 1950 to April 2020) utilizing the following key terms: vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, VRE, meningitis, ventriculitis, CNS infection, daptomycin, and linezolid. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All relevant studies and case reports describing the treatment of VRE faecium from the CNS with linezolid or daptomycin were included. Data Synthesis: A total of 17 reports describing 22 cases were identified. There were 15 of 19 cases involving linezolid that reported clinical cure, of which 53.3% were monotherapy. Only 5 of 9 cases involving intravenous (IV) daptomycin resulted in cure; all 4 cases reporting daptomycin administration via the intrathecal or intraventricular route achieved clearance from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: The preferred treatment option for VRE faecium infections involving the CNS remains unclear. Supporting evidence through observational case reports have described varying outcomes with linezolid and daptomycin. This review compares reported outcomes between the 2 agents and provides a thorough discussion on drug- and patient-specific variables to consider. Conclusions: Linezolid monotherapy appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of susceptible-VRE faecium CNS infections, with consideration of therapeutic drug monitoring in special populations and with prolonged treatment duration. Daptomycin is an effective treatment option via intrathecal or intraventricular administration when neurosurgical access is available. The role of IV daptomycin remains inconclusive.