Demelo-Rodriguez P, et al. Heart Fail Clin 2020 - Review.
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common acute cardiovascular condition, and its prevalence increases over time. D-dimer has a very high negative predictive value, and if normal levels of D-dimer are detected, the diagnosis of PE is very unlikely. The final diagnosis should be confirmed by computed tomographic scan. However, echocardiography is the most available, bedside, low-cost, diagnostic procedure for patients with PE. Risk stratification is of utmost importance and is mainly based on hemodynamic status of the patient. Patients with PE and hemodynamic stability require further risk assessment, based on clinical symptoms, imaging, and circulating biomarkers.