Age-dependent gender differences of COVID-19 in mainland China: comparative study.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 30;:
Authors: Qian J, Zhao L, Ye RZ, Li XJ, Liu YL
BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging global public health system. Sex-differences in infectious diseases are a common but neglected problem.
METHODS: We used the national surveillance database of COVID-19 in mainland China to compared gender differences in attack rate (AR), proportion of severe and critical cases (PSCC) and case fatality rate (CFR) in relation to age, affected province, and onset-to-diagnosis interval.
RESULTS: The overall AR was significantly higher in female population than in males (63.9 versus 60.5 per million persons; P ˂ .001). By contrast, PSCC and CFR were significantly lower among female patients (16.9% and 4.0%) than among males (19.5% and 7.2%), with ORs of 0.87 and 0.57, respectively (both P ˂ .001). The female-to-male differences were age-dependent, which were significant among people aged 50-69 years for AR, and in the patients of 30-years or older for both PSCC and CFR (all P ≤ .001). The AR, PSCC and CFR varied greatly from province to province. However, female-to-male differences in AR, PSCC and CFR were significant in the epicenter, Hubei province, where 82.2% confirmed cases and 97.4% deaths occurred. After adjusting for age, affected province and onset-to-diagnosis interval, the female-to-male difference in AR, PSCC and CFR remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: We elucidate an age-dependent gender dimorphism for COVID-19, in which the females have higher susceptibility but lower severity and fatality. Further epidemiological and biological investigations are required to better understand the sex-specific differences for effective interventions.
PMID: 32473009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]