Outcomes after Vena Cava Filter Use in Patients with Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism and Contraindications to Anticoagulation

Link to article at PubMed

Quezada A, et al. Thromb Haemost 2020.


BACKGROUND: The association between the use of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) and outcomes among patients with cancer-associated thromboembolism (CT) and contraindications to anticoagulation remains unclear.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study of patients with CT from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica Registry, we assessed the association between IVCF insertion due to contraindication to anticoagulation and the outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality, recurrent thromboembolism, and major bleeding rates through 30 days after initiation of treatment. We used propensity score matching to adjust for the likelihood of receiving a filter. For outcomes assessment, we implemented generalized estimating equation methods to incorporate the matched-pairs design, and adjusted for covariates that remained unbalanced after matching.

RESULTS: Of the 17,005 patients with CT, 270 underwent IVCF placement because of contraindication to anticoagulation. Of those, 247 were successfully matched with 247 patients treated without a filter. Propensity score-matched pairs showed a nonsignificantly lower risk of all-cause death (12.2% vs. 17.0%; p = 0.13), and a significantly lower risk of PE-related mortality (0.8% vs. 4.0%; p = 0.04) for patients receiving IVCFs compared with those who did not. While there was no significant difference in the rate of major bleeding (6.1% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.85), risk-adjusted recurrent rates were higher for patients who received IVCFs compared with those who did not (7.3% vs. 3.2%; p = 0.05).

CONCLUSION: In patients with CT and a contraindication to anticoagulation, IVCF insertion was associated with a lower risk of PE-related death, and a higher risk of recurrences.

PMID:32422681 | DOI:10.1055/s-0040-1710589

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