Antipseudomonal monotherapy or combination therapy for older adults with community-onset pneumonia and multidrug-resistant risk factors: a retrospective cohort study.

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Antipseudomonal monotherapy or combination therapy for older adults with community-onset pneumonia and multidrug-resistant risk factors: a retrospective cohort study.

Am J Infect Control. 2019 09;47(9):1053-1058

Authors: Obodozie-Ofoegbu OO, Teng C, Mortensen EM, Frei CR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend empiric antipseudomonal combination therapy when Pseudomonas is suspected. However, combination antipseudomonal therapy is controversial. This study compares all-cause 30-day mortality in older patients who received antipseudomonal monotherapy (PMT) or antipseudomonal combination therapy (PCT) for the treatment of community-onset pneumonia.
METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used data from over 150 Veterans Health Administration hospitals. Patients were classified as being at low, medium, or high risk of drug-resistant pathogens. In total, 31,027 patients were assigned to PCT or PMT treatment arms based on antibiotics received in the first 48 hours of hospital admission.
RESULTS: The unadjusted 30-day mortality difference between PCT and PMT was most pronounced in the low-risk group (18% vs 8%), followed by the medium-risk group (24% vs 18%) and then the high-risk group (39% vs 33%). PCT was associated with higher 30-day mortality than PMT overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.66) in all 3 risk groups: low (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.50-1.89), medium (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.48), and high (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40).
CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who received combination antipseudomonal therapy for community-onset pneumonia fared worse than those who received monotherapy. Empiric combination antipseudomonal therapy should not be routinely offered to all patients suspected of having pseudomonal pneumonia.

PMID: 30904374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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