Lingegowda D, et al. J Vasc Access 2020.
PURPOSE: Vascular access in oncology patients can often be challenging, especially after a few cycles of chemotherapy through peripheral lines which can cause veins to become attenuated. We evaluated the feasibility of centrally placed non-cuffed tunnelled peripherally inserted central catheter in the chest as an alternative to conventional peripherally inserted central catheter.
METHOD: Patients referred for peripherally inserted central catheter found to have inadequate peripheral venous access in their arms due to prior chemotherapy, and therefore they were offered placement of the non-cuffed tunnelled peripherally inserted central catheter in the chest. Adult patients were subjected to the procedure under local anaesthesia, while paediatric patients underwent this procedure under general anaesthesia. Ultrasound guidance was used for venous access, and fluoroscopy was used for tip positioning. Using internal jugular vein access, BARD Groshong-valved 4F peripherally inserted central catheter was placed with its tip in the cavo-atrial junction. Proximal end of the catheter was brought out through the subcutaneous tunnel, so that the exit point of the peripherally inserted central catheter lies over the upper chest. Extra length of the catheter was trimmed, and extensions were attached. The device was stabilized with adhesive and sutures.
RESULTS: Out of 19 patients, 18 patients were male (4-72 years). Technical success was achieved in 100% cases. No catheter-related bloodstream infection was noted within 30 days of peripherally inserted central catheter. Overall, during 1966 catheter days, no catheter-related bloodstream infection was observed. The purpose of peripherally inserted central catheter was achieved in 15 patients (78.9%) either in the form of completion of chemotherapy (8/15) or maintained peripherally inserted central catheter line till death (7/15). Partial or complete pullout was observed in four patients (20.1%), which required cuffed tunnelled catheter or implantable port. External fracture was noted in one patient, which was successfully corrected using repair kit. No exit site infection, bleeding, catheter occlusion, catheter dysfunction, venous thrombosis, venous stenosis or catheter embolizations were noted in our series.
CONCLUSION: Centrally placed tunnelled peripherally inserted central catheter is a promising alternative method, when conventional arm peripherally inserted central catheter placement is not feasible. It is an easy and safe procedure that can be performed under local anaesthesia.