In-hospital acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: What is the scope of the problem?

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In-hospital acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: What is the scope of the problem?

World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2019 Dec 16;11(12):561-572

Authors: Haddad FG, El Imad T, Nassani N, Kwok R, Al Moussawi H, Polavarapu A, Ahmed M, El Douaihy Y, Deeb L

BACKGROUND: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a frequently encountered condition in the Gastroenterology field with a mortality rate of 10-14%. Despite recent newer innovations and advancements in endoscopic techniques and available medications, the mortality rate associated with AUGIB remained persistently elevated.
AIM: To explore mortality, characteristics and outcome differences between hospitalized patients who develop AUGIB while in-hospital, and patients who initially present with AUGIB.
METHODS: This is a retrospective of patients who presented to Northwell Health Staten Island University Hospital from October 2012 to October 2016 with AUGIB that was confirmed endoscopically. Patients were divided in two groups: Group 1 comprised patients who developed AUGIB during their hospital stay; group 2 consisted of patients who initially presented with AUGIB as their main complaint. Patient characteristics, time to endoscopy, endoscopy findings and interventions, and clinical outcomes were collected and compared between groups.
RESULTS: A total of 336 patients were included. Group 1 consisted of 139 patients and group 2 of 196 patients. Mortality was significantly higher in the 1st group compared to the 2nd (20% vs 3.1%, P ≤ 0.05). Increased length of stay (LOS) was noted in the 1st group (13 vs 6, P ≤ 0.05). LOS post-endoscopy, vasopressor use, number of packed red blood cell units and patients requiring fresh frozen plasma were higher in group 1. Inpatients were more likely to be on corticosteroids, antiplatelets and anticoagulants. Conversely, the mean time from bleeding to undergoing upper endoscopy was significantly lower in group 1 compared to group 2.
CONCLUSION: In-hospital AUGIB is associated with high mortality and morbidity despite a shorter time to endoscopy. Larger scale studies assessing the role of increased comorbidities and antithrombotic use in this setting are warranted.

PMID: 31839875 [PubMed]

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