Management of Severe Bleeding in Patients Treated With Oral Anticoagulants: Proceedings Monograph From the Emergency Medicine Cardiac Research and Education Group-International Multidisciplinary Severe Bleeding Consensus Panel October 20, 2018.
Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2019 Sep;18(3):143-166
Authors: Gibler WB, Racadio JM, Hirsch AL, Roat TW
In this Emergency Medicine Cardiac Research and Education Group (EMCREG)-International Proceedings Monograph from the October 20, 2018, EMCREG-International Multidisciplinary Consensus Panel on Management of Severe Bleeding in Patients Treated With Oral Anticoagulants held in Orlando, FL, you will find a detailed discussion regarding the treatment of patients requiring anticoagulation and the reversal of anticoagulation for patients with severe bleeding. For emergency physicians, critical care physicians, hospitalists, cardiologists, internists, surgeons, and family physicians, the current approach and disease indications for treatment with anticoagulants such as coumadin, factor IIa, and factor Xa inhibitors are particularly relevant. When a patient treated with anticoagulants presents to the emergency department, intensive care unit, or operating room with severe, uncontrollable bleeding, achieving rapid, controlled hemostasis is critically important to save the patient's life. This EMCREG-International Proceedings Monograph contains multiple sections reflecting critical input from experts in Emergency Cardiovascular Care, Prehospital Emergency Medical Services, Emergency Medicine Operations, Hematology, Hospital Medicine, Neurocritical Care, Cardiovascular Critical Care, Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology, Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, and Pharmacy. The first section provides a description of the current indications for the treatment of patients using oral anticoagulants including coumadin, the factor IIa (thrombin) inhibitor dabigatran, and factor Xa inhibitors such as apixaban and rivaroxaban. In the remaining sections, the treatment of patients presenting to the hospital with major bleeding becomes the focus. The replacement of blood components including red blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors is the critically important initial treatment for these individuals. Reversing the anticoagulated state is also necessary. For patients treated with coumadin, infusion of vitamin K helps to initiate the process of protein synthesis for the vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins II, VII, IX, and X and the antithrombotic protein C and protein S. Repletion of clotting factors for the patient with 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate, which includes factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X and therapeutically effective concentrations of the regulatory proteins (protein C and S), provides real-time ability to slow bleeding. For patients treated with the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, treatment using the highly specific, antibody-derived idarucizumab has been demonstrated to reverse the hypocoagulable state of the patient to allow blood clotting. In May 2018, andexanet alfa was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to reverse the factor Xa anticoagulants apixaban and rivaroxaban in patients with major bleeding. Before the availability of this highly specific agent, therapy for patients treated with factor Xa inhibitors presenting with severe bleeding usually included replacement of lost blood components including red blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors and 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate, or if not available, fresh frozen plasma. The evaluation and treatment of the patient with severe bleeding as a complication of oral anticoagulant therapy are discussed from the viewpoint of the emergency physician, neurocritical and cardiovascular critical care intensivist, hematologist, trauma and acute care surgeon, hospitalist, cardiologist, electrophysiologist, and pharmacist in an approach we hope that the reader will find extremely practical and clinically useful. The clinician learner will also find the discussion of the resumption of oral anticoagulation for the patient with severe bleeding after effective treatment important because returning the patient to an anticoagulated state as soon as feasible and safe prevents thrombotic complications. Finally, an EMCREG-International Severe Bleeding Consensus Panel algorithm for the approach to management of patients with life-threatening oral anticoagulant-associated bleeding is provided for the clinician and can be expanded in size for use in a treatment area such as the emergency department or critical care unit.
PMID: 31348075 [PubMed - in process]