Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism: How Often are They Used? Data from Multicenter Prospective Registries on Acute Pulmonary Embolism.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2019 May 15;:
Authors: Zuin M, Rigatelli G, Zonzin P, Roncon L
The use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is recommended in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who have absolute contraindications to anticoagulant drugs and/or in those subjects with recurrent PE despite treated with an adequate anticoagulant regimen. During the last 2 decades, some investigations have demonstrated that the use of IVC filters in high-risk PE patients, treated or not with systemic thrombolysis, was able to reduce the short-term mortality rate if inserted early after the acute event. The aim of the present review is to analyze the use of IVC filters in high-risk PE patients enrolled in prospective multicenter registries between 1990 and 2018. After screening 3542 article in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and Goggle Scholar databases, we identified four registry studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In a prospective cohort of 39,056 patients, 1387 (3.5%) were hemodynamically unstable at admission. Among them, IVC filters were used only in 2.7% of cases. Conversely, IVC filters were inserted in 3.8% of hemodynamically stable patients. Over the years, a fluctuating trend in the use of IVC filters was observed. In the absence of randomized controlled trial on this issue, which would be difficult, if not impossible to realize, data obtained from the medical literature seem to suggest that IVC filters could represent a valid adjunctive therapy in hemodynamically unstable PE patients, able to prevent further hemodynamic deterioration. Further and larger subgroup analyses, obtained both by prospective and retrospective studies, are necessary to clarify this therapeutic approach.
PMID: 31093719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]