Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Discontinuation Might Shorten the Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Without Increasing Pneumonia Recurrence.
Am J Med Sci. 2019 Apr 16;:
Authors: Akagi T, Nagata N, Wakamatsu K, Harada T, Miyazaki H, Takeda S, Ushijima S, Aoyama T, Yoshida Y, Yatsugi H, Wada K, Ueda Y, Fujita M, Watanabe K
BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment has not been established for pneumonia patients. Some investigators reported procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antimicrobial stewardship reduces the duration of antibiotic use without increasing mortality in pneumonia patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia or healthcare-associated pneumonia patients with PCT levels >0.20 ng/mL on admission, who were admitted between 2014 and 2017. PCT levels were measured on days 5, 8 and 11 and every 3 days thereafter if needed. Physicians were encouraged and strongly encouraged to discontinue antibiotics when PCT levels decreased below 0.20 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. Those admitted between 2010 and 2014 were included in the study as historical controls. Primary endpoints were duration of antibiotic treatment and recurrence of pneumonia within 30 days after antibiotic discontinuation.
RESULTS: The PCT-guided and control groups consisted of 116 patients each. Background factors including pneumonia severity and PCT levels did not differ between the 2 groups. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 8.0 and 11 days in the PCT-guided and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation (partial regression coefficient [PRC] -1.9319, P < 0.001), PCT (PRC 0.1501, P = 0.0059) and albumin (PRC -1.4398, P = 0.0096) were significantly related to duration of antibiotic treatment. Pneumonia recurrence within 30 days after antibiotic discontinuation was not statistically different between the 2 groups (4.3% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.5541).
CONCLUSIONS: PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation might be useful for shortening the duration of antibiotic treatment without increasing pneumonia recurrence.
PMID: 31084909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]