Hormonal Replacement Therapy in Heart Failure: Focus on Growth Hormone and Testosterone.
Heart Fail Clin. 2019 Jul;15(3):377-391
Authors: Salzano A, D'Assante R, Lander M, Arcopinto M, Bossone E, Suzuki T, Cittadini A
A growing body of evidence led to the hypothesis that heart failure (HF) could be considered a multiple hormone deficiency syndrome. Deficiencies in the main anabolic axes cannot be considered as mere epiphenomena, are very common in HF, and are clearly associated with poor cardiovascular performance and outcomes. Growth hormone deficiency and testosterone deficiency play a pivotal role and the replacement treatment is an innovative therapy that should be considered. This article appraises the current evidence regarding growth hormone and testosterone deficiencies in HF and reviews novel findings about the treatment of these conditions in HF.
PMID: 31079696 [PubMed - in process]