Increased Risk of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Cirrhotic Patients Using Proton Pump Inhibitors.

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Increased Risk of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Cirrhotic Patients Using Proton Pump Inhibitors.

GE Port J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;26(2):83-89

Authors: Elzouki AN, Neffati N, Rasoul FA, Abdallah A, Othman M, Waness A

Background: The association between bacterial infections and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has recently been studied with debatable results.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PPIs and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) or other bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.
Materials and Methods: Consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized from 2007 through 2012 to Hamad General Hospital-, Doha, Qatar, were enrolled and classified as PPI users or non-users according to PPI consumption in the 90 days prior to hospitalization. Cirrhosis was clinically diagnosed by a combination of physical, biochemical, radiological, and endoscopic findings, or by liver biopsy.
Results: A total of 333 patients were included in this study, of whom 171 (51.4%) used PPIs and 162 (48.6%) did not use PPIs. PPI users were significantly older in age (p = 0.001). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in sex distribution and etiology of cirrhosis (p > 0.05 for both parameters). PPI users had a significantly higher incidence of overall bacterial infection (38%) than non-PPI users (13.6%), p = 0.0001. Statistical significance is observed specifically for SBP and chest infection (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.01, respectively). In multivariate analysis, older age (> 60 years; OR = 1.246, 95% CI 1.021-08.486; p = 0.02), and PPI use (OR = 2.149, 95% CI 1.124-06.188; p = 0.01) were independent predicting factors for SBP and overall bacterial infection.
Conclusion: The present study shows that PPI use, as well as older age (> 60 years), was an independent predicting factor for the development of overall infection and SBP in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Unless it is indicated, PPI therapy should be avoided in this group of patients, particularly in those older than 60 years of age.

PMID: 30976612 [PubMed]

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