Ophthalmic Manifestations of Acute Leukemia.

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Ophthalmic Manifestations of Acute Leukemia.

Cureus. 2019 Jan 07;11(1):e3837

Authors: Hafeez MU, Ali MH, Najib N, Ayub MH, Shafi K, Munir M, Butt NH

Introduction Ocular involvement in leukemia may occur because of direct leukemic infiltration or because of secondary ophthalmic involvement as a result of abnormalities related to blood like anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis. In some patients with leukemia, ophthalmic signs can precede the systemic features and can help in early diagnosis of systemic leukemia. Due to the scarcity of data on this topic from Pakistan, we conducted this study to determine the pattern of ocular involvement in patients with leukemia presenting in our settings. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of one year. The study comprised of both newly diagnosed and follow-up patients of acute leukemia of age more than 15 years. Patients underwent detailed ophthalmic anterior and dilated posterior segment examination. Patient's demographic profile, type of leukemia, chemotherapy status, and hematologic findings were also documented. Results There were 97 leukemic patients in the study with 55 (56.7%) males and 42 (43.3%) females. Various ophthalmic manifestations were observed in 47 (48.45%) patients. Forty-two (43.3%) were diagnosed cases with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 55 (56.7%) suffered from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Ophthalmic manifestations were present in 29 patients of AML (52.7%) and 18 patients of ALL (42.85%). Ocular involvement was significantly more common in newly diagnosed (n=32) as compared with follow-up patients (n=15) (p-value = 0.032). Posterior segment (n=48) was the most common site of ocular involvement (n=48, 49.5%) with retinal hemorrhages seen in 40 patients (41.2%) and papilloedema in seven cases (7.2%). Thirty-three (70.2%) out of 47 patients with ophthalmic manifestations were asymptomatic while 14 (29.8%) had ocular symptoms at the time of initial presentation. Conclusion Ophthalmic manifestations were present in about half of the patients with leukemia. Ocular involvement was more prevalent in newly diagnosed cases and in patients with AML.

PMID: 30891378 [PubMed]

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