Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with aetiology and predict outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: results of a 5-year follow-up cohort study.
ERJ Open Res. 2019 Feb;5(1):
Authors: Siljan WW, Holter JC, Michelsen AE, Nymo SH, Lauritzen T, Oppen K, Husebye E, Ueland T, Mollnes TE, Aukrust P, Heggelund L
Background: Biomarkers may facilitate clinical decisions in order to guide antimicrobial treatment and prediction of prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We measured serum C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) and calprotectin levels, and plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and presepsin levels, along with whole-blood white cell counts, at three time-points, and examined their association with microbial aetiology and adverse clinical outcomes in CAP.
Methods: Blood samples were obtained at hospital admission, clinical stabilisation and 6-week follow-up from 267 hospitalised adults with CAP. Adverse short-term outcome was defined as intensive care unit admission and 30-day mortality. Long-term outcome was evaluated as 5-year all-cause mortality.
Results: Peak levels of all biomarkers were seen at hospital admission. Increased admission levels of C-reactive protein, PCT and calprotectin were associated with bacterial aetiology of CAP, while increased admission levels of PCT, PTX3 and presepsin were associated with adverse short-term outcome. In univariate and multivariate regression models, white blood cells and calprotectin at 6-week follow-up were predictors of 5-year all-cause mortality.
Conclusions: Calprotectin emerges as both a potential early marker of bacterial aetiology and a predictor for 5-year all-cause mortality in CAP, whereas PCT, PTX3 and presepsin may predict short-term outcome.
PMID: 30863773 [PubMed]