Procalcitonin, mid-regional proadrenomedullin and C-reactive protein in predicting treatment outcome in community-acquired febrile urinary tract infection.
BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 14;19(1):161
Authors: Stalenhoef JE, van Nieuwkoop C, Wilson DC, van der Starre WE, van der Reijden TJK, Delfos NM, Leyten EMS, Koster T, Ablij HC, van 't Wout JJW, van Dissel JT
BACKGROUND: A reduction in duration of antibiotic therapy is crucial in minimizing the development of antimicrobial resistance, drug-related side effects and health care costs. The minimal effective duration of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (fUTI) remains a topic of uncertainty, especially in male patients, those of older age or with comorbidities. Biomarkers have the potential to objectively identify the optimal moment for cessation of therapy.
METHODS: A secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial among 35 primary care centers and 7 emergency departments of regional hospitals in the Netherlands. Women and men aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of fUTI were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic treatment for 7 or 14 days. Patients indicated to receive antimicrobial treatment for more than 14 days were excluded from randomization. The biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were compared in their ability to predict clinical cure or failure through the 10-18 day post-treatment visit.
RESULTS: Biomarker concentrations were measured in 249 patients, with a clinical cure rate of 94% in the 165 randomized and 88% in the 84 non-randomized patients. PCT, MR-proADM and CRP concentrations did not differ between patients with clinical cure and treatment failure, and did not predict treatment outcome, irrespective of 7 or 14 day treatment duration (ROCAUC 0.521; 0.515; 0.512, respectively). PCT concentrations at presentation were positively correlated with bacteraemia (τ = 0.33, p < 0.001) and presence of shaking chills (τ = 0.25, p < 0.001), and MR-proADM levels with length of hospital stay (τ = 0.40, p < 0.001), bacteraemia (τ = 0.33, p < 0.001), initial intravenous treatment (τ = 0.22, p < 0.001) and time to defervescence (τ = 0.21, p < 0.001). CRP did not display any correlation to relevant clinical parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the biomarkers PCT and MR-proADM were correlated to clinical parameters indicating disease severity, they did not predict treatment outcome in patients with community acquired febrile urinary tract infection who were treated for either 7 or 14 days. CRP had no added value in the management of patients with fUTI.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov [ NCT00809913 ; December 16, 2008] and trialregister.nl [ NTR1583 ; December 19, 2008].
PMID: 30764769 [PubMed - in process]