Early vs late oral nutrition in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis admitted to a medical intensive care unit.
World J Diabetes. 2019 Jan 15;10(1):57-62
Authors: Lipatov K, Kurian KK, Shaver C, White HD, Ghamande S, Arroliga AC, Surani S
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has an associated mortality of 1% to 5%. Upon admission, patients require insulin infusion and close monitoring of electrolyte and blood sugar levels with subsequent transitioning to subcutaneous insulin and oral nutrition. No recommendations exist regarding the appropriate timing for initiation of oral nutrition.
AIM: To assess short-term outcomes of oral nutrition initiated within 24 h of patients being admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU) for DKA.
METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted at a single academic medical center. The patient population consisted of adults admitted to the MICU with the diagnosis of DKA. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients receiving oral nutrition within (early nutrition group) and after (late nutrition group) the first 24 h of admission. The primary outcome was 28-d mortality. Secondary outcomes included 90-d mortality, MICU and hospital lengths of stay (LOS), and time to resolution of DKA.
RESULTS: There were 128 unique admissions to the MICU for DKA with 67 patients receiving early nutrition and 61 receiving late nutrition. The APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) IV mortality and LOS scores and DKA severity were similar between the groups. No difference in 28- or 90-d mortality was found. Early nutrition was associated with decreased hospital and MICU LOS but not with prolonged DKA resolution, anion gap closure, or greater rate of DKA complications.
CONCLUSION: In patients with DKA, early nutrition was associated with a shorter MICU and hospital LOS without increasing the rate of DKA complications.
PMID: 30697371 [PubMed]