Initial management for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jan 07;25(1):69-84
Authors: Aoki T, Hirata Y, Yamada A, Koike K
Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common indication for hospital admission. Patients with LGIB often experience persistent or recurrent bleeding and require blood transfusions and interventions, such as colonoscopic, radiological, and surgical treatments. Appropriate decision-making is needed to initially manage acute LGIB, including emergency hospitalization, timing of colonoscopy, and medication use. In this literature review, we summarize the evidence for initial management of acute LGIB. Assessing various clinical factors, including comorbidities, medication use, presenting symptoms, vital signs, and laboratory data is useful for risk stratification of severe LGIB, and for discriminating upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Early timing of colonoscopy had the possibility of improving identification of the bleeding source, and the rate of endoscopic intervention, compared with elective colonoscopy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography before colonoscopy may help identify stigmata of recent hemorrhage on colonoscopy, particularly in patients who can be examined immediately after the last hematochezia. How to deal with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antithrombotic agents after hemostasis should be carefully considered because of the risk of rebleeding and thromboembolic events. In general, aspirin as primary prophylaxis for cardiovascular events and NSAIDs were suggested to be discontinued after LGIB. Managing acute LGIB based on this information would improve clinical outcomes. Further investigations are needed to distinguish patients with LGIB who require early colonoscopy and hemostatic intervention.
PMID: 30643359 [PubMed - in process]