The Prognostic Value of Renal Function in Acute Pulmonary Embolism-A Multi-Centre Cohort Study.

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The Prognostic Value of Renal Function in Acute Pulmonary Embolism-A Multi-Centre Cohort Study.

Thromb Haemost. 2019 Jan;119(1):140-148

Authors: Kostrubiec M, Pływaczewska M, Jiménez D, Lankeit M, Ciurzynski M, Konstantinides S, Pruszczyk P

BACKGROUND:  Haemodynamic alterations caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE) may affect multi-organ function including kidneys. This multi-centre, multinational cohort study aimed to validate the prognostic significance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and its potential additive value to the current PE risk assessment algorithms.
METHODS:  The post hoc analysis of pooled prospective cohort studies: 2,845 consecutive patients (1,424 M/1,421 F, 66 ± 17 years) with confirmed acute PE and followed up for 180 days. We tested prognostic value of pre-specified eGFR level ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated on admission according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation. The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality; the secondary outcomes were PE-related mortality, 180-day all-cause mortality, bleeding and composite outcome (PE-related death, thrombolysis or embolectomy).
RESULTS:  Two hundred and twenty-three patients (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7-9%) died within the first 30 days after the diagnosis. The eGFR on admission was significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors (64 ± 34 vs. 75 ± 3 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors for a fatal outcome included: cancer, systolic blood pressure, older age, hypoxia, eGFR, heart rate and coronary artery disease. The eGFR of ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 independently predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.0, p < 0.0001), PE-related outcome and clinically relevant bleedings (odds ratio: 0.90 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI: 0.85-0.95, p = 0.0002). The eGFR assessment significantly improved prognostic models proposed by European guidelines with net re-classification improvement of 0.42 (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION:  The eGFR of ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 not only independently predicted higher 30- and 180-day all-cause mortality and bleeding events, but when added to the current European Society of Cardiology risk stratification algorithm improved identification of both low- and high-risk patients. Therefore, eGFR calculation should be implemented in the risk assessment of acute PE.

PMID: 30597508 [PubMed - in process]

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