Another Nail in the Coffin for Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsion in Acute Myocardial Infarction With Cardiogenic Shock.
Circulation. 2018 Nov 11;:
Authors: Katz S, Smilowitz NR, Hochman JS
Cardiogenic shock occurs in up to 5% to 10% of acute myocardial infarctions(MI) and is associated with high short- and long-term mortality risk. Since its introduction into clinical practice >50 years ago, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsion has been used empirically to provide hemodynamic support in patients undergoing coronary revascularization in the setting of MI and cardiogenic shock. In the landmark SHOCK (Should We Emergently Revascularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock) trial, conducted between 1993 and 1998, intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) were placed in 86% of participants, irrespective of the assigned management strategy.1 Although expert opinion supported clinical benefit of IABP use in cardiogenic shock, the first large randomized, multi-center trial of IABP, published in 2012, upended this conventional wisdom. The IABP-SHOCK II(Intra-aortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock II) trial randomly assigned 600 participants planned for early revascularization of acute MI complicated by cardiogenic shock to either IABP placement or no IABP placement.2 The primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. At 30 days, all-cause mortality was 40%, with no difference between patients randomized to receive an IABP versus those who were not. There were no differences between treatment groups in secondary outcomes, including bleeding, ischemic complications, stroke, time to hemodynamic stabilization, intensive care unit length of stay, and the dose and duration of catecholamine therapy. A previous intermediate-term report of IABP-SHOCK II trial outcomes demonstrated no difference between treatment groups for allcause mortality at 12 months.3 In this issue of Circulation, Thiele et al4 report the 6-year results of the IABPSHOCK II randomized trial. At 6 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality was high and did not differ between the IABP and control groups (66.3% versus 67.0%) in intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and as-treated analyses. No signal for benefit associated with IABP use was observed in any prespecified or post hoc subgroups. There were no differences in the frequency of recurrent MI, repeat revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular rehospitalization between the 2 groups. Quality of life, measured by the EuroQol 5D questionnaire and New York Heart Association classification, was favorable in survivors of cardiogenic shock. Four of 5 survivors had New York Heart Association Class I or II symptoms, with no difference between patients randomly assigned to IABP and no IABP therapy.
PMID: 30586784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]