Treating invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancy: diagnostic-driven approach versus empiric therapies.
BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Dec 13;18(1):656
Authors: Dib RW, Hachem RY, Chaftari AM, Ghaly F, Jiang Y, Raad I
BACKGROUND: Early antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been associated with improved outcome. Traditionally, of empiric antifungal therapy has been used for clinically suspected IA. We compared outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancy and IA who were treated with voriconazole using the diagnostic driven DDA (DDA-Vori) that includes galactomannan testing vs. empiric therapy with a non-voriconazole-containing regimen (EMP-non-Vori) or empiric therapy with voriconazole (EMP-Vori).
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 342 hematologic malignancy patients diagnosed with proven, or probable IA between July 1993 and February 2016 at our medical center who received at least 7 days of DDA-Vori, EMP-Vori, or EMP-non-Vori. Outcome assessment included response to therapy (clinical and radiographic), all-cause mortality, and IA-attributable mortality.
RESULTS: By multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a favorable response included localized/sinus IA vs. disseminated/pulmonary IA (p < 0.0001), not receiving white blood cell transfusion (p < 0.01), and DDA-Vori vs. EMP-non-Vori (p < 0.0001). In contrast, predictors of mortality within 6 weeks of initiating IA therapy included disseminated/pulmonary infection vs. localized/sinus IA (p < 0.01), not undergoing stem cell transplantation within 1 year before IA (p = 0.01), and EMP-non-Vori vs. DDA-Vori (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: DDA-Vori was associated with better outcome (response and survival) compared with EMP-non-Vori and with equivalent outcome to EMP-Vori in hematologic malignancy patients. These outcomes associated with the implementation of DDA could lead to a reduction in the unnecessary costs and adverse events associated with the widespread use of empiric therapy.
PMID: 30545320 [PubMed - in process]