The prognosis of heart failure patients: Does sodium level play a significant role?

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The prognosis of heart failure patients: Does sodium level play a significant role?

PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0207242

Authors: Abebe TB, Gebreyohannes EA, Tefera YG, Bhagavathula AS, Erku DA, Belachew SA, Gebresillassie BM, Abegaz TM

INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF), a major cardiovascular disorder, remains a grievous clinical condition regardless of advances in medical care. Hyponatremia is classified as a serum sodium concentration of <135 mEq/L, and the prevalence, clinical impact and prognostic factor of hyponatremia in heart failure patients varies widely. The current study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence of hyponatremia in patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of HF and comparing baseline clinical characteristic of HF patients based on their sodium status. Survival difference between patients with hyponatremia and normonatremia was also assessed and the clinical prognostic indicators of overall mortality in HF patients were evaluated.
METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess medical records of heart failure patients who were admitted to Gondar University Referral Hospital. Patients were categorized based on their sodium level status at their first admission to the internal medicine department. Each patient was assigned to either of the following groups: hyponatremia if sodium < 135 mmol/L, or normonatremia if sodium ≥ 135 mmol/L.
RESULT: Among 388 participants, the prevalence of hyponatremia in the study cohorts was 51.03%. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that there was a significant difference in survival status of HF patients among the two cohorts (Log-Rank test, P <0.0001). Hence, patients with normal sodium levels had a higher chance of survival over hyponatremic patients. Multivariate Cox regression has revealed a statistically significant association of mortality with the following variables: advanced age (AHR = 1.035 (1.012-1.058), P = 0.003), hyponatremia (AHR = 4.003 (1.778-9.009), P = 0.001), higher creatinine level (AHR = 1.929 (1.523-2.443), P = <0.0001) and, prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (AHR = 0.410 (0.199-0.842), P = 0.015) and spironolactone (AHR = 0.511 (0.275-0.949), P = 0.033.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, hyponatremia is one of the crucial factors in the clinical prognosis of heart failure patients. However, as other prognostic factors (i.e. medication, creatine level, and age) also played vital roles in overall survival, well-controlled clinical trials (complete with medication dosing, laboratory outputs and long-term prospective follow up) are required to further study the impact of hyponatremia in HF patient's prognosis in low income nations.

PMID: 30408132 [PubMed - in process]

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