Outcomes Associated With a Strategy of Adjuvant Metolazone or High-Dose Loop Diuretics in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Propensity Analysis.
J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Sep 18;7(18):e009149
Authors: Brisco-Bacik MA, Ter Maaten JM, Houser SR, Vedage NA, Rao V, Ahmad T, Wilson FP, Testani JM
Background In acute decompensated heart failure, guidelines recommend increasing loop diuretic dose or adding a thiazide diuretic when diuresis is inadequate. We set out to determine the adverse events associated with a diuretic strategy relying on metolazone or high-dose loop diuretics. Methods and Results Patients admitted to 3 hospitals using a common electronic medical record with a heart failure discharge diagnosis who received intravenous loop diuretics were studied in a propensity-adjusted analysis of all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included hyponatremia (sodium <135 mE q/L), hypokalemia (potassium <3.5 mE q/L) and worsening renal function (a ≥20% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate). Of 13 898 admissions, 1048 (7.5%) used adjuvant metolazone. Metolazone was strongly associated with hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and worsening renal function ( P<0.0001 for all) with minimal effect attenuation following covariate and propensity adjustment. Metolazone remained associated with increased mortality after multivariate and propensity adjustment (hazard ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.39, P=0.01). High-dose loop diuretics were associated with hypokalemia and hyponatremia ( P<0.002) but only worsening renal function retained significance ( P<0.001) after propensity adjustment. High-dose loop diuretics were not associated with reduced survival after multivariate and propensity adjustment (hazard ratio=0.97 per 100 mg of IV furosemide, 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.06, P=0.52). Conclusions During acute decompensated heart failure, metolazone was independently associated with hypokalemia, hyponatremia, worsening renal function and increased mortality after controlling for the propensity to receive metolazone and baseline characteristics. However, under the same experimental conditions, high-dose loop diuretics were not associated with hypokalemia, hyponatremia, or reduced survival. The current findings suggest that until randomized control trial data prove otherwise, uptitration of loop diuretics may be a preferred strategy over routine early addition of thiazide type diuretics when diuresis is inadequate.
PMID: 30371181 [PubMed - in process]