Early discontinuation of empirical antibacterial therapy in febrile neutropenia: the ANTIBIOSTOP study.

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Early discontinuation of empirical antibacterial therapy in febrile neutropenia: the ANTIBIOSTOP study.

Infect Dis (Lond). 2018 07;50(7):539-549

Authors: Le Clech L, Talarmin JP, Couturier MA, Ianotto JC, Nicol C, Le Calloch R, Dos Santos S, Hutin P, Tandé D, Cogulet V, Berthou C, Guillerm G

INTRODUCTION: Immediate empirical antibiotic therapy is mandatory in febrile chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, but its optimal duration is unclear, especially in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO).
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this 20-month prospective observational study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of short-term antibiotic treatment in afebrile or febrile patients exhibiting FUO, irrespective of their neutrophil count. The secondary objective was to describe the epidemiology of all episodes of febrile neutropenia.
METHODS: In the first phase of the study, empirical antibiotic therapy in FUO patients was stopped after 48 h of apyrexia, in accordance with European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia guidelines (n = 45). In the second phase of the study, antibiotics were stopped no later than day 5 for all FUO patients, regardless of body temperature or leukocyte count (n = 37).
RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-eight cases of febrile neutropenia in 123 patients were included. Neither the composite endpoint (p = .11), nor each component (in-hospital mortality (p = .80), intensive care unit admission (p = 0.48), relapse of infection ≤48 h after discontinuation of antibiotics (p = .82)) differed between the two FUO groups. Violation of protocol occurred in 17/82 episodes of FUO without any major impact on statistical results. Twenty-six (57.3%) and 22 (59.5%) FUO episodes did not relapse during hospital-stay (p = 1), and nine (20%) and five (13.5%) presented another FUO, respectively. One hundred and fifty-six episodes of febrile neutropenia (65.5%) were clinically or microbiologically documented, including 85 bacteremia.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early discontinuation of empirical antibiotics in FUO is safe for afebrile neutropenic patients.

PMID: 29451055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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