Safety Lapses Prior to Initiation of Hemodialysis for Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients: A Patient Safety Initiative.
J Clin Med. 2018 Oct 01;7(10):
Authors: Douvris A, Zeid K, Hiremath S, Brown PA, Sood MM, Abou Arkoub R, Malhi G, Clark EG
Background: Safety lapses in hospitalized patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) may lead to hemodialysis (HD) being required before renal recovery might have otherwise occurred. We sought to identify safety lapses that, if prevented, could reduce the need for unnecessary HD after AKI; Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study that included consecutive patients treated with HD for AKI at a large, tertiary academic center between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016. Exposures of interest were pre-specified iatrogenic processes that could contribute to the need for HD after AKI, such as nephrotoxic medication or potassium supplement administration. Other outcomes included time from AKI diagnosis to initial management steps, including Nephrology referral; Results: After screening 344 charts, 80 patients were included for full chart review, and 264 were excluded because they required HD within 72 h of admission, were deemed to have progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), or required other renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities in critical care settings such as continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED). Multiple safety lapses were identified. Sixteen patients (20%) received an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker after AKI onset. Of 35 patients with an eventual diagnosis of pre-renal AKI due to hypovolemia, only 29 (83%) received a fluid bolus within 24 h. For 28 patients with hyperkalemia as an indication for starting HD, six (21%) had received a medication associated with hyperkalemia and 13 (46%) did not have a low potassium diet ordered. Nephrology consultation occurred after a median (IQR) time after AKI onset of 3.0 (1.0⁻5.7) days; Conclusions: Although the majority of patients had multiple indications for the initiation of HD for AKI, we identified many safety lapses related to the diagnosis and management of patients with AKI. We cannot conclude that HD initiation was avoidable, but, improving safety lapses may delay the need for HD initiation, thereby allowing more time for renal recovery. Thus, development of automated processes not only to identify AKI at an early stage but also to guide appropriate AKI management may improve renal recovery rates.
PMID: 30275365 [PubMed]