Management and outcome of major bleeding in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists for venous thromboembolism.
Thromb Res. 2018 Sep 22;171:74-80
Authors: Moustafa F, Stehouwer A, Kamphuisen P, Sahuquillo JC, Sampériz Á, Alfonso M, Pace F, Suriñach JM, Blanco-Molina Á, Mismetti P, Monreal M, RIETE Investigators
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of major bleeding in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear.
METHODS: We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) registry to assess the management and 30-day outcomes after major bleeding in patients receiving VKA for VTE.
RESULTS: From January 2013 to December 2017, 267 of 18,416 patients (1.4%) receiving long-term VKA for VTE had a major bleeding (in the gastrointestinal tract 78, intracranial 72, hematoma 50, genitourinary 20, other 47). Overall, 151 patients (57%) received blood transfusion; 110 (41%) vitamin K; 37 (14%) fresh frozen plasma; 29 (11%) pro-haemostatic agents and 20 (7.5%) a vena cava filter. During the first 30 days, 59 patients (22%) died (41 died of bleeding) and 13 (4.9%) had a thrombosis. On multivariable analysis, patients with intracranial bleeding (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.58; 95%CI: 2.40-8.72) and those with renal insufficiency at baseline (HR: 2.73; 95%CI: 1.45-5.15) had an increased mortality risk, whereas those receiving vitamin K had a lower risk (HR: 0.47; 0.24-0.92). On the other hand, patients receiving fresh frozen plasma were at increased risk for thrombotic events (HR: 4.22; 95%CI: 1.25-14.3).
CONCLUSIONS: Major bleeding in VTE patients receiving VKA carries a high mortality rate. Intracranial bleeding and renal insufficiency increased the risk. Fresh frozen plasma seems to increase this risk for recurrent VTE.
PMID: 30265883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]