High Prevalence of Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease as Cause of Hyponatremia in General Medical Wards.
Am J Med Sci. 2018 Jul;356(1):15-22
Authors: Maesaka JK, Imbriano LJ, Miyawaki N
BACKGROUND: The approach to hyponatremia is in a state of flux, especially in differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) from cerebral-renal salt wasting (RSW) because of diametrically opposite therapeutic goals. Considering RSW can occur without cerebral disease, we determined the prevalence of RSW in the general hospital wards.
METHODS: To differentiate SIADH from RSW, we used an algorithm based on fractional excretion (FE) of urate and nonresponse to saline infusions in SIADH as compared to excretion of dilute urines and prompt increase in serum sodium in RSW.
RESULTS: Of 62 hyponatremic patients, (A) 17 patients (27%) had SIADH, 11 were nonresponsive to isotonic saline, and 5 normalized a previously high FEurate after correction of hyponatremia; (B) 19 patients (31%) had a reset osmostat based on normal FEurates and spontaneously excreted dilute urines; (C) 24 patients (38%) had RSW, 21 had no clinical evidence of cerebral disease, 19 had saline-induced dilute urines; 2 had undetectable plasma ADH levels when urine was dilute, 10 required 5% dextrose in water to prevent rapid increase in serum sodium, 11 had persistently increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia and 10 had baseline urinary sodium < 20 mEq/L; (D) 1 patient had Addison disease with a low FEurate and (E) 1 patient (1.6%) had hyponatremia due to hydrochlorothiazide.
CONCLUSIONS: Of the 24 patients with RSW, 21 had no cerebral disease, supporting our proposal to change cerebral-renal salt wasting to renal salt wasting. Application of established pathophysiological standards and a new algorithm based on determination of FEurate were superior to the volume approach for determination of urinary sodium when identifying the cause of hyponatremia.
PMID: 30049325 [PubMed - in process]