Impact of acute diabetes decompensation on outcomes of diabetic patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

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Impact of acute diabetes decompensation on outcomes of diabetic patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2018;10:57

Authors: Issa M, Alqahtani F, Berzingi C, Al-Hajji M, Busu T, Alkhouli M

Abstract
Background: Acute hyperglycemia is associated with worse outcomes in diabetic patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the impact of full-scale decompensated diabetes on STEMI outcomes has not been investigated.
Methods: We utilized the national inpatient sample (2003-2014) to identify adult diabetic patients admitted with STEMI. We defined decompensated diabetes as the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS). We compared in-hospital morbidity and mortality and cost between patients with and without diabetes decompensation before and after propensity-score matching.
Results: A total of 73,722 diabetic patients admitted with STEMI were included in the study. Of those, 1131 (1.5%) suffered DKA or HSS during the hospitalization. After propensity-score matching, DKA/HHS remained associated with a significant 32% increase in in-hospital mortality (25.6% vs. 19.4%, p = 0.001). The DKA/HHS group also had higher incidences of acute kidney injury (39.4% vs. 18.9%, p < 0.001), sepsis (7.3% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.022), blood transfusion (11.3% vs. 8.2%) and a non-significant trend towards higher incidence of stroke (3.8% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.087). Also, DKA/HHS diagnosis was associated with lower rates of referral to coronary angiography (51.5% vs. 55.5%, p = 0.023), coronary stenting (26.1% vs. 34.8%, p < 0.001), or bypass grafting (6.2% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.033). Referral for invasive angiography was associated with lower odds of death during the hospitalization (adjusted OR 0.66, 95%CI 0.44-0.98, p = 0.039).
Conclusions: Decompensated diabetes complicates ~ 1.5% of STEMI admissions in diabetic patients. It is associated with lower rates of referral for angiography and revascularization, and a negative differential impact on in-hospital morbidity and mortality and cost.

PMID: 30026816 [PubMed]

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