Presentation, Clinical Profile, and Prognosis of Young Patients With Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries (MINOCA): Results From the VIRGO Study.
J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Jun 28;7(13):
Authors: Safdar B, Spatz ES, Dreyer RP, Beltrame JF, Lichtman JH, Spertus JA, Reynolds HR, Geda M, Bueno H, Dziura JD, Krumholz HM, D'Onofrio G
BACKGROUND: We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of young patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) versus obstructive disease (myocardial infarction due to coronary artery disease [MI-CAD]) and among patients with MINOCA by sex and subtype.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2012, VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) prospectively enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients aged 18 to 55 years in 103 hospitals at a 2:1 ratio of women to men. Using an angiographically driven taxonomy, we defined patients as having MI-CAD if there was revascularization or plaque ≥50% and as having MINOCA if there was <50% obstruction or a nonplaque mechanism. Patients who did not have an angiogram or who received thrombolytics before an angiogram were excluded. Outcomes included 1- and 12-month mortality and functional (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ]) and psychosocial status. Of 2690 patients undergoing angiography, 2374 (88.4%) had MI-CAD, 299 (11.1%) had MINOCA, and 17 (0.6%) remained unclassified. Women had 5 times higher odds of having MINOCA than men (14.9% versus 3.5%; odds ratio: 4.84; 95% confidence interval, 3.29-7.13). MINOCA patients were more likely to be without traditional cardiac risk factors (8.7% versus 1.3%; P<0.001) but more predisposed to hypercoaguable states than MI-CAD patients (3.0% versus 1.3%; P=0.036). Women with MI-CAD were more likely than those with MINOCA to be menopausal (55.2% versus 41.2%; P<0.001) or to have a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (16.8% versus 11.0%; P=0.028). The MINOCA mechanisms varied: a nonplaque mechanism was identified for 75 patients (25.1%), and their clinical profiles and management also varied. One- and 12-month mortality with MINOCA and MI-CAD was similar (1-month: 1.1% and 1.7% [P=0.43]; 12-month: 0.6% and 2.3% [P=0.68], respectively), as was adjusted 12-month SAQ quality of life (76.5 versus 73.5, respectively; P=0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with MINOCA were more likely women, had a heterogeneous mechanistic profile, and had clinical outcomes that were comparable to those of MI-CAD patients.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00597922.
PMID: 29954744 [PubMed - in process]