Proton Pump Inhibitor Initiation and Withdrawal affects Gut Microbiota and Readmission Risk in Cirrhosis.

Link to article at PubMed

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Proton Pump Inhibitor Initiation and Withdrawal affects Gut Microbiota and Readmission Risk in Cirrhosis.

Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 Jun 06;:

Authors: Bajaj JS, Acharya C, Fagan A, White MB, Gavis E, Heuman DM, Hylemon PB, Fuchs M, Puri P, Schubert ML, Sanyal AJ, Sterling RK, Stravitz RT, Siddiqui MS, Luketic V, Lee H, Sikaroodi M, Gillevet PM

OBJECTIVES: Cirrhosis is associated with gut microbial dysbiosis, high readmissions and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) overuse, which could be inter-linked. Our aim was to determine the effect of PPI use, initiation and withdrawl on gut microbiota and readmissions in cirrhosis.
METHODS: Four cohorts were enrolled. Readmissions study: Cirrhotic inpatients were followed throughout the hospitalization and 30/90-days post-discharge. PPI initiation, withdrawal/continuation patterns were analyzed between those with/without readmissions. Cross-sectional microbiota study: Cirrhotic outpatients and controls underwent stool microbiota analysis. Beneficial autochthonous and oral-origin taxa analysis vis-à-vis PPI use was performed. Longitudinal studies: Two cohorts of decompensated cirrhotic outpatients were enrolled. Patients on chronic unindicated PPI use were withdrawn for 14 days. Patients not on PPI were started on omeprazole for 14 days. Microbial analysis for oral-origin taxa was performed pre/post-intervention.
RESULTS: Readmissions study: 343 inpatients (151 on admission PPI) were enrolled. 21 were withdrawn and 45 were initiated on PPI resulting in a PPI use increase of 21%. PPIs were associated with higher 30 (p = 0.002) and 90-day readmissions (p = 0.008) independent of comorbidities, medications, MELD and age. Cross-sectional microbiota: 137 cirrhotics (59 on PPI) and 45 controls (17 on PPI) were included. PPI users regardless of cirrhosis had higher oral-origin microbiota while cirrhotics on PPI had lower autochthonous taxa compared to the rest. Longitudinal studies: Fifteen decompensated cirrhotics tolerated omeprazole initiation with an increase in oral-origin microbial taxa compared to baseline. PPIs were withdrawn from an additional 15 outpatients, which resulted in a significant reduction of oral-origin taxa compared to baseline.
CONCLUSIONS: PPIs modulate readmission risk and microbiota composition in cirrhosis, which responds to withdrawal. The systematic withdrawal and judicious use of PPIs is needed from a clinical and microbiological perspective in decompensated cirrhosis.

PMID: 29872220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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