Implementation of an Intensive Care Unit-Specific Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Management Protocol Reduces the Need for Mechanical Ventilation.
Pharmacotherapy. 2018 May 25;:
Authors: Heavner JJ, Akgün KM, Heavner MS, Eng CC, Drew M, Jackson P, Pritchard D, Honiden S
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders are prevalent and put patients at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Treatment of AWS with a symptom-triggered protocol standardizes management and may avoid AWS-related complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of an intensive care unit (ICU)-specific, symptom-triggered protocol for management of AWS was associated with improved clinical outcomes and, in particular, would reduce the risk of patients with AWS requiring mechanical ventilation.
DESIGN: Retrospective pre-post-protocol implementation study.
SETTING: Thirty-six-bed, closed medical ICU (MICU) at a large, tertiary care, teaching hospital in an urban setting.
PATIENTS: A total of 233 adults admitted to the MICU with any diagnosis of alcohol use disorders based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and who received at least one dose of any benzodiazepine; of these patients, 139 were in the pre-protocol era (August 2009-January 2010 and August 2010-January 2011), and 94 were in the post-protocol era (August 2012-January 2013), after implementation of the Yale Alcohol Withdrawal Protocol (YAWP) in April 2012.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The YAWP pairs a modified Minnesota Detoxification Scale with an order set that includes benzodiazepine dosing regimens and suggests adjuvant therapies. AWS was the primary reason for ICU admission (107/233 patients [45.9%]) and did not significantly vary between eras (P=0.2). Of the 233 patients included, 81.1% were male and 67.0% were white, which did not significantly differ by study era. Severity of illness at MICU admission did not significantly differ between patients in the pre-protocol and post-protocol eras (median [interquartile range] Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II scores of 12 [9-17] and 12.5 [7-16], respectively, p=0.4). Median lorazepam-equivalent dose per MICU day, duration of benzodiazepine infusion, and use of adjuvant therapy were not significantly different between eras. MICU intubation was less common in the post-protocol era (36/139 patients [25.9%] pre-protocol vs 8/94 patients [8.5%] post-protocol, p=0.0009). ICU-related pneumonia was also decreased in the post-protocol era (30/139 patients [21.6%] pre-protocol vs 10/94 patients [10.6%] post-protocol, p=0.03). After adjusting for demographics, adjuvant therapies, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, protocol implementation was associated with a decreased odds of MICU intubation (odds ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.39).
CONCLUSION: Implementation of YAWP was associated with a decreased risk of MICU intubation in patients at risk for AWS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 29800507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]