Urine Antigen Detection as an Aid to Diagnose Invasive Aspergillosis.

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Urine Antigen Detection as an Aid to Diagnose Invasive Aspergillosis.

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 19;:

Authors: Marr KA, Datta K, Mehta S, Ostrander DB, Rock M, Francis J, Feldmesser M

Abstract
Background: Establishing rapid diagnoses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is priority, given poor outcomes of late therapy. Non-culture based tests that detect galactomannan and β-D glucan are available, but are technically cumbersome and rely on invasive sampling (blood or bronchoalveolar lavage).
Methods: We optimized a lateral flow dipstick assay using the galactofuranose -specific monoclonal antibody (mAb476), which was previously shown to recognize urine antigens after Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in an`imals. Urine samples were obtained from a cohort of 78 subjects undergoing clinical evaluation for suspected invasive fungal infections, and stored frozen until testing. Urine was processed by centrifugation through desalting columns and exposed to dipsticks. Reviewers blinded to EORTC/MSG clinical diagnoses graded results. Western blots were performed on urines from two subjects to characterize mAb476-reactive antigens.
Results: Per-patient sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of proven or probable IA in the overall cohort was 80% (95% CI: 61.4-92.3) and 92% (95% CI 74-99). In the sub-group with cancer, sensitivity was 89.5% (95% CI 66.7-98.7) and specificity was 90.9% (95% CI 58.7 - 99.8); amongst all others, sensitivity and specificity were 63.6 (95% CI 30.8 - 89.1) and 92.9 (66.1 - 99.8), respectively. Eliminating lung transplant recipients with airway disease increased sensitivity in the non-cancer cohort (85.7%, 95% CI 42.1-99.6%). Semi-quantitative urine assay results correlated with serum galactomannan indices. Western blots demonstrated mAb476-reactive antigens in urine from cases, ranging between 26 - 35kDa in size.
Conclusions: Urine testing using mAb476 may be used as an aid to diagnose IA in high-risk patients.

PMID: 29684106 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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