Biomarkers for heart failure: small molecules with high clinical relevance.
J Intern Med. 2018 Apr 22;:
Authors: Magnussen C, Blankenberg S
Heart failure (HF) is a rising epidemic due to the ageing population and progress in all areas of medicine. Thus, research efforts are made to ensure a timely diagnosis, to improve prognosis and treatment of the disease and to facilitate risk prediction at the population level. Because of their noninvasive determination with mostly high sensitivity and accuracy, circulating blood biomarkers are becoming increasingly important for daily clinical practice. Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and cardiac troponins are established blood biomarkers in HF diagnosis and prognosis of HF-related outcomes. Inflammatory molecules as C-reactive protein (CRP) may have added value in anti-inflammatory therapy guidance. Next-generation biomarkers including soluble source of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), galectin-3 (Gal-3) and diverse microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) may have additional benefit in assessment of cardiac remodeling or differentiation of HF subtypes. Multimarker approaches containing different combinations of established and novel biomarkers might improve HF risk prediction at the population level once they are used on top of clinical variables.
PMID: 29682806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]