Extended versus Bolus Infusion of Broad Spectrum ?-Lactams for Febrile Neutropenia: an Unblinded Randomized Trial.

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Extended versus Bolus Infusion of Broad Spectrum β-Lactams for Febrile Neutropenia: an Unblinded Randomized Trial.

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 28;:

Authors: Ram R, Halavy Y, Amit O, Paran Y, Katchman E, Yachini B, Kor S, Avivi I, Ben-Ami R

Abstract
Background: Febrile neutropenia may be a sign of severe infection, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies. Extended infusion of β-lactam antibiotics is associated with greater clinical response than is bolus infusion in non-neutropenic critically ill patients, but data are lacking for febrile neutropenic patients.
Methods: We designed a single-center, non-blinded randomized trial comparing extended infusion (4 hours) and bolus infusion (30 minutes) of piperacillin-tazobactam or ceftazidime in high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia. The primary end-point was overall response on day 4, defined as the combination of resolution of fever, sterile blood cultures, resolution of clinical signs and symptoms, and no need for a change in the antibiotic regimen. Outcome was adjudicated by investigators blinded to treatment allocation.
Results: Of 123 enrolled patients, 105 had febrile neutropenia and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis: 47 in the extended infusion arm and 58 in the bolus infusion arm. Overall response occurred in 35 (74.4%) patients treated with extended infusion and 32 (55.1%) patients treated with bolus infusion (P=0.044). The superiority of extended infusion compared with bolus infusion was greatest for patients with clinically documented infections (overall response, 68.4% [13/19] versus 35.7% [10/28]; P=0.039), and specifically for those with pneumonia (80% [4/5] versus 0% [0/8]; P=0.007).
Conclusions: Extended infusion of β-lactams is associated with superior treatment outcomes as compared with bolus infusion for high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia. The benefit of extended β-lactam infusion may be greatest for patients with pulmonary infections.

PMID: 29608680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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