Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis: a narrative review.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 2018 Feb;6(1):21-28
Authors: Hopkins RJ, Wilson RB
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that was originally isolated from the stool of a healthy neonate in 1935. In high-income countries, C. difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The incidence of C. difficile infection in the USA has increased markedly since 2000, with hospitalizations for C. difficile infections in non-pregnant adults doubling between 2000 and 2010. Between 20% and 35% of patients with C. difficile infection will fail initial antibiotic treatment and, of these, 40-60% will have a second recurrence. Recurrence of C. difficile infection after initial treatment causes substantial morbidity and is a major burden on health care systems. In this article, current treatments for recurrent C. difficile infection are reviewed and future directions explored. These include the use of antibiotics, probiotics, donor faecal transplants, anion resins, secondary bile acids or anti-toxin antibodies.
PMID: 29479439 [PubMed]