Use of Fondaparinux Off-Label or Approved Anticoagulants for Management of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Nov 28;70(21):2636-2648
Authors: Schindewolf M, Steindl J, Beyer-Westendorf J, Schellong S, Dohmen PM, Brachmann J, Madlener K, Pötzsch B, Klamroth R, Hankowitz J, Banik N, Eberle S, Müller MM, Kropff S, Lindhoff-Last E
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is treated with the alternative nonheparin anticoagulants argatroban, lepirudin, or danaparoid. Frequently, the pentasaccharide fondaparinux is used off-label.
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of the different anticoagulants for treating HIT.
METHODS: In a national, multicenter registry study, hospitalized patients who were diagnosed with HIT, an at least intermediate clinical HIT-risk (4Ts score ≥4 points), and received treatment with ≥1 dose of the aforementioned anticoagulants were included. Main outcome measures were the incidences of HIT-specific complications (thromboembolic venous/arterial events, amputations, recurrent/persistent thrombocytopenia, skin lesions) and bleedings.
RESULTS: Of 195 patients, 46 (23.6%), 4 (2.1%), 61 (31.3%), and 84 (43.1%) had been treated first-line with argatroban, lepirudin, danaparoid, and fondaparinux, respectively. The composite endpoint of HIT-specific complications (thromboembolic events, amputation, skin necrosis) occurred in 11.7% of patients treated with approved alternative anticoagulation and in 0.0% of fondaparinux-treated patients. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rates were 14.4% during approved alternative anticoagulation and 0.0% during fondaparinux treatment. Bleeding complications occurred in alternatively anticoagulated patients and in fondaparinux-treated patients in 6.3% and 4.8%, respectively. Post hoc analysis of clinical and laboratory features confirmed "true" HIT in at least 74 of 195 (38.0%) patients; 35 of 74 (47.3%) were treated with fondaparinux.
CONCLUSIONS: Fondaparinux is effective and safe in suspected acute HIT; no HIT-specific complications occurred in the fondaparinux-treated patients, even among those with a high clinical HIT probability. Further data from randomized controlled trials are urgently needed because lepirudin was recalled from the market; danaparoid access has been limited and is not approved in the United States; and argatroban is contraindicated in patients with impaired liver function, and activated partial thromboplastin time confounding may interfere with monitoring. (Retrospective Registry of Patients With Acute Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Type II; NCT01304238).
PMID: 29169470 [PubMed - in process]