Central venous catheter placement in coagulopathic patients: risk factors and incidence of bleeding complications.

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Central venous catheter placement in coagulopathic patients: risk factors and incidence of bleeding complications.

Transfusion. 2017 Oct;57(10):2512-2525

Authors: van de Weerdt EK, Biemond BJ, Baake B, Vermin B, Binnekade JM, van Lienden KP, Vlaar APJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters are frequently inserted into patients with coagulation disorders. It is unclear whether preprocedural correction of hemostasis is beneficial. We determined the incidence of bleeding complications after central venous catheter placement in patients who had severe coagulopathy and identified potential risk factors for bleeding.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched through November 2015. To be included, articles must have reported on hemorrhagic complications with specification of abnormal coagulation testing results. Severe coagulopathy was defined as a reduced platelet count of 50 × 10(9) /L or less, and/or an elevated international normalized ratio of 1.5 or greater, and/or a partial thromboplastin time of 45 seconds or greater.
RESULTS: We included one randomized controlled trial and 21 observational studies. In total, there were 13,256 catheter insertions, including 4213 in patients with severe coagulopathy. Before 3150 central venous catheter placements, coagulopathy was not corrected. The bleeding incidence varied from 0 to 32%. The severity of coagulopathy did not predict the risk of bleeding. No study demonstrated a beneficial effect from the prophylactic administration of platelets or fresh-frozen plasma to prevent bleeding complications. Retrospective observational studies suggested that no preprocedural correction is required up to a platelet count of 20 × 10(9) /L and an international normalized ratio of 3.0.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of major bleeding complications after central venous catheter placement is low, even in coagulopathic patients. Based on a systematic research of the literature, strong evidence supporting the correction of hemostatic defects before central venous catheter insertion is lacking. However, well-powered randomized controlled trials will be necessary to determine the minimal platelet count, the maximal international normalized ratio, and an activated partial thromboplastin time that is safe before central venous catheter insertion.

PMID: 28856685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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