Immediate reactions to iodinated contrast media.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017 Oct 07;:
Authors: Morales-Cabeza C, Roa-Medellín D, Torrado I, De Barrio M, Fernández-Álvarez C, Montes-Aceñero JF, De La Riva I, Prieto-García A
BACKGROUND: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHRs) to iodinated contrast media (ICMs) remain a common clinical concern. Positive skin test and basophil activation test results suggest a specific IgE-mediated mechanism in some cases. Skin test and controlled challenge test (CCT) are useful to manage these patients.
OBJECTIVE: To study clinical and allergologic features of IHRs to ICMs in a Spanish tertiary hospital during a 7-year period.
METHODS: Demographic and clinical data concerning the reaction were recorded. Patients treated at the Allergy Department of Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain, underwent skin tests. In those with positive results, CCTs with an alternative skin-test-negative ICM was performed. Global reaction rate was calculated and compared for each ICM.
RESULTS: A total of 342 reactions occurred in 329 patients. Cutaneous symptoms were the most common (87.7%). A total of 196 patients underwent an allergy workup, 15 (7.6%) of whom had positive skin test results. Reactions were more severe in patients with positive vs negative skin test results (grade 1, 46.7% vs 73.6%; grade 2, 33.3% vs 20.9%; grade 3, 20% vs 5.46%; P < .05). Three patients had cross-reactivity to 3 ICMs, all including ioversol and iomeprol. Six patients allergic to iopamidol tolerated ioversol and 1 tolerated iomeprol. Four patients allergic to ioversol and 1 allergic to iomeprol tolerated iopamidol. The global reaction rate was 0.2%, differing for each ICM (iopamidol, 0.14%; ioversol, 0.2%; and iomeprol, 0.4%; P < .001). Positive skin test results were found in a low percentage of patients in whom skin test-based CCT identified an alternative non-cross-reactive ICM. Low-grade cross-reactivity was found, especially between iopamidol and ioversol. Reactions were more severe in patients with positive skin test results. The reaction rate was greater for iomeprol compared with iopamidol (reaction rate, 2.8%) and ioversol (reaction rate, 2%).
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a possible underlying specific IgE-mediated mechanism by positive skin test result in a low percentage of patients with IHRs to ICMs. In these patients, the CCT based on skin test results was useful for identifying an alternative non-cross-reactive ICM. More studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanism in patients with IHRs and negative skin test results.
PMID: 29017901 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]