Association Between the Order of Macrolide and Cephalosporin Treatment and Outcomes of Pneumonia.

Link to article at PubMed

Related Articles

Association Between the Order of Macrolide and Cephalosporin Treatment and Outcomes of Pneumonia.

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(3):ofx141

Authors: Metersky ML, Priya A, Mortensen EM, Lindenauer PK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Many patients hospitalized with pneumonia are treated with combination macrolide/cephalosporin therapy. Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects and do not directly cause bacterial lysis. These effects suggest the possibility that initial treatment with a macrolide before a cephalosporin could improve patient outcomes by preventing the inflammatory response to rapid bacterial lysis that can be caused by cephalosporin treatment. This study explores whether initial treatment for pneumonia with a macrolide before a cephalosporin is associated with better patient outcomes than treatment with a cephalosporin before a macrolide.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using a clinically rich database derived from electronic health records of 71 hospitals. We compared outcomes for pneumonia patients who received intravenous treatment with a macrolide at least 1 hour before a cephalosporin, versus patients who received a cephalosporin at least 1 hour before a macrolide. Propensity matching was performed for 527 patients in each group.
RESULTS: Among the propensity-matched cohorts, for the macrolide first group, in-hospital mortality was 4.2% vs 5.5% for the cephalosporin first group (P = .31), combined in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge was 6.3% vs 9.3% (P = .06), median hospital length of stay was 101.5 hours vs 109.5 hours (P = .09), and 30-day readmission was 12.9% vs 10.6% (P = .27).
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of pneumonia with a macrolide before a cephalosporin was not associated with significantly improved outcomes when compared with treatment with a cephalosporin first; however, the lower rate of mortality/discharge to hospice and the large confidence intervals allow for the possibility of a clinically significant benefit.

PMID: 28948176 [PubMed]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.