Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation: from vitamin K antagonists and heparins to direct oral anticoagulant agents.
Intern Emerg Med. 2017 Sep 19;:
Authors: Sciascia S, Radin M, Schreiber K, Fenoglio R, Baldovino S, Roccatello D
Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH)] are at high risk of bleeding events (both non-major and major clinically relevant bleeding). While anticoagulation reduces the risk of thromboembolic events, the co-existing bleeding risk and the fact that the most commonly used anticoagulation agents are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. In this review, we discuss the complex challenges and the practical considerations associated with the management of anticoagulation treatment in patients with CKD, with a special focus on DOACs.
PMID: 28929298 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]