Processes of code status transitions in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer.
Cancer. 2017 Sep 07;:
Authors: El-Jawahri A, Lau-Min K, Nipp RD, Greer JA, Traeger LN, Moran SM, D'Arpino SM, Hochberg EP, Jackson VA, Cashavelly BJ, Martinson HS, Ryan DP, Temel JS
BACKGROUND: Although hospitalized patients with advanced cancer have a low chance of surviving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the processes by which they change their code status from full code to do not resuscitate (DNR) are unknown.
METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study on a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. Two physicians used a consensus-driven medical record review to characterize processes that led to code status order transitions from full code to DNR.
RESULTS: In total, 1047 hospitalizations were reviewed among 728 patients. Admitting clinicians did not address code status in 53% of hospitalizations, resulting in code status orders of "presumed full." In total, 275 patients (26.3%) transitioned from full code to DNR, and 48.7% (134 of 275 patients) of those had an order of "presumed full" at admission; however, upon further clarification, the patients expressed that they had wished to be DNR before the hospitalization. We identified 3 additional processes leading to order transition from full code to DNR acute clinical deterioration (15.3%), discontinuation of cancer-directed therapy (17.1%), and education about the potential harms/futility of CPR (15.3%). Compared with discontinuing therapy and education, transitions because of acute clinical deterioration were associated with less patient involvement (P = .002), a shorter time to death (P < .001), and a greater likelihood of inpatient death (P = .005).
CONCLUSIONS: One-half of code status order changes among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer were because of full code orders in patients who had a preference for DNR before hospitalization. Transitions due of acute clinical deterioration were associated with less patient engagement and a higher likelihood of inpatient death. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 28881383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]