Immune diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: Clinical presentation and outcome.

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Immune diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: Clinical presentation and outcome.

Respir Med. 2017 Aug;129:59-62

Authors: Quadrelli S, Dubinsky D, Solis M, Yucra D, Hernández M, Karlen H, Brigante A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a manifestation of several immune and nonimmune diseases.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of patients with immune-mediated DAH requiring hospital admission.
METHODS: A retrospective study from December 2010 to December 2015, was conducted by analyzing the clinical records of 39 patients with DAH with a proven immunological origin. The diagnosis of individual collagen vascular diseases (CVD) was made according to the criteria of the corresponding societies.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were included (median age 44.8 years, range 16-76). The main causes of DAH were ANCA-related vasculitis (74.3%) mainly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (n = 14) and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 13). Thirty patients (76.9%) had hemoptysis. An alveolar airspace filling pattern was found in most of patients (59%). All the patients had a drop in hemoglobin level that ranged from 1.0 to 3.0 g/dL. BAL fluid was macroscopically bloody in 43.6% of patients (n = 17) and showed siderophagic alveolitis on BAL cytology in 100%. All patients received high doses of corticosteroids. Other additional treatments were antibiotics (53,8%, n = 21), intravenous cyclophosphamide (87.2%, n = 34), plasma exchange (35.9%, n = 14); intravenous immunoglobulin (12.8%, n = 5) and rituximab in 5 patients (12.8%). Mortality rate was higher amongst patients who required dialysis (50.0 vs 15.4%, p = 0.045), with SaO2 <90% at admission (50.0 vs 5.3%, p = 0.003) or those who required mechanical ventilation (76.9 vs 6.8%, p = < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: DAH may present without hemoptysis and requires an early bronchoscopy to confirm the diagnosis and exclude infection. Other characteristics could be included in the abstract which are relevant to the paper. (relation between mortality, dialysis, ventilation, etc.).

PMID: 28732837 [PubMed - in process]

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