Pharmacologic Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Available Therapies.

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Pharmacologic Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Available Therapies.

Am J Med. 2017 May 12;:

Authors: Thrasher J

Choices for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have multiplied as our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic defects has evolved. Treatment should target multiple defects in T2DM and follow a patient-centered approach that considers factors beyond glycemic control, including cardiovascular risk reduction. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association recommend an initial approach consisting of lifestyle changes and monotherapy, preferably with metformin. Therapy choices are guided by glycemic efficacy, safety profiles, particularly effects on weight and hypoglycemia risk, tolerability, patient comorbidities, route of administration, patient preference, and cost. Balancing management of hyperglycemia with the risk of hypoglycemia and consideration of the effects of pharmacotherapy on weight figure prominently in US-based T2DM recommendations, whereas less emphasis has been placed on the ability of specific medications to affect cardiovascular outcomes. This is likely because, until recently, specific glucose-lowering agents have not been shown to affect cardiorenal outcomes. The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial, and the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes 6 (SUSTAIN-6) recently showed a reduction in overall cardiovascular risk with empagliflozin, liraglutide, and semaglutide treatment, respectively. Moreover, empagliflozin has become the first glucose-lowering agent indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adults with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease. Results from cardiovascular outcomes trials have prompted an update to the 2017 American Diabetes Association standards of care, which now recommend consideration of empagliflozin or liraglutide for patients with suboptimally controlled long-standing T2DM and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease because these agents have been shown to reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality when added to standard care.

PMID: 28526182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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