Association between serum osmolarity and mortality in patients who are critically ill: a retrospective cohort study.

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Association between serum osmolarity and mortality in patients who are critically ill: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open. 2017 May 09;7(5):e015729

Authors: Shen Y, Cheng X, Ying M, Chang HT, Zhang W

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This research aims to explore the association between serum osmolarity and mortality in patients who are critically ill with specific categories of disease.
DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were extracted from an online database named 'Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II'. 16 598 patients were included.
METHODS: Patients were divided into six disease subgroups based on the diagnosis at admission: cardiac, cerebral, vascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and non-respiratory. The association between maximum osmolarity (osmolaritymax) and hospital mortality in each subgroup was evaluated using osmolaritymax as a design variable (six levels).
RESULTS: Analysis of the 16 598 patients revealed a 'U'-shaped relationship between osmolarity and mortality with a threshold of 300 mmoL/L. For patients with non-respiratory disease, both hypo-osmolarity and hyperosmolaritymax were associated with increased mortality, with the OR increasing from osmolaritymax level 3 (OR: 1.98, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.33, p<0.001) to level 6 (OR: 4.45, 95% CI 3.58 to 5.53, p<0.001), using level 2 (290-309 mmoL/L) as the reference group. For patients with respiratory disease, however, neither hypo-osmolarity nor hyperosmolaritymax was significantly associated with mortality (levels 1 to 5) except for extreme hyperosmolaritymax (≥340 mmoL/L, OR: 2.03, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.42, p=0.007). ORs of mortality in the other four subgroups (cardiac, cerebral, vascular, gastrointestinal) were similar, with OR progressively increasing from level 3 to 6. In all six subgroups, vasopressin use was consistently associated with increased mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Hyperosmolarity is associated with increased mortality in patients who are critically ill with cardiac, cerebral, vascular and gastrointestinal admission diagnoses, with thresholds at 300 mmoL/L. For patients with respiratory disease, however, no significant association was detected.

PMID: 28490564 [PubMed - in process]

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