Reversing the anticoagulation effects of dabigatran.

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Reversing the anticoagulation effects of dabigatran.

Hosp Pract (1995). 2017 Mar 24;:1-10

Authors: Dager WE, Banares L

The standard of care for oral anticoagulation therapy has primarily been warfarin, which is limited by its indirect mechanism-of-action, variable kinetics, tolerability, and routine monitoring concerns. The direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and improved safety and efficacy compared to warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and prevention or management of venous thromboembolism. Consequential bleeding is a concern with all anticoagulants. Vitamin K is not a rapid reversal agent for warfarin; rather it facilitates synthesis of new vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, which can take longer than 24 h. Other nonspecific agents, including recombinant activated factor VII, three- and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), and activated PCC or Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (FEIBA®), are options based on clinical need. Specific agents to quickly reverse the effects of DOACs have been under development, and idarucizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment that rapidly binds dabigatran, has been approved for clinical use in cases of dabigatran-related life-threatening bleeding, or if a dabigatran-treated patient needs emergency surgery or an invasive procedure. Idarucizumab specifically and rapidly reverses dabigatran-induced anticoagulation as measured by established coagulation assays. However, this does not guarantee complete hemostasis, especially if a patient has underlying comorbidities such as renal or liver disease, or has experienced recent trauma that requires urgent surgery. In these cases, concomitant supportive therapy and/or administration of concentrated clotting factors may be considered. Emerging data from ongoing trials and clinical experience will further inform providers regarding optimal approaches for anticoagulation reversal.

PMID: 28335637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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