Management of patients presenting with haemoptysis to a Tertiary Care Italian Emergency Department: the Florence Haemoptysis Score (FLHASc).
Intern Emerg Med. 2017 Feb 03;:
Authors: Vanni S, Bianchi S, Bigiarini S, Casula C, Brogi M, Orsi S, Acquafresca M, Corbetta L, Grifoni S
We analysed the clinical features and diagnostic workup of patients presenting with haemoptysis to an Italian teaching hospital to derive an easy-to-use clinical score to guide risk stratification and initial management in the emergency department (ED). We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of consecutive patients with haemoptysis over 1 year. A pre-specified set of variables, including demographic data, vital signs, type of expectorate (pure blood vs. blood-streaked sputum), comorbidities, and diagnostic tests and treatments was originally registered. The primary outcome was a composite of any of the following: death from any cause, invasive or non-invasive ventilation, Intensive Care Unit admission, blood transfusions or invasive haemostatic procedures. We investigated associations between the pre-specified clinical variables and the primary outcome using a logistic regression analysis. Finally, we derived a score (the Florence Haemoptysis Score, FLHASc) giving a proportional weight to each variable according to the Odds Ratios (OR). We included 197 patients with a median age of 60 years. The first radiological study was a plain chest X-ray in 128 patients (65%). For 33 (17%) patients, a chest computer tomography (CT scan) was the first radiological study. The most common diagnosis was lung malignancy (19% of cases). The diagnosis remained undetermined in one-third of patients. The primary outcome was met by 11.2% of the study population. Systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg (OR 9.7), a history of malignancy (OR 3), the expectoration of pure blood (OR 2.8), and more than 2 episodes of haemoptysis in the prior 24 h (OR 2.5) are found as independent predictors of the primary outcome. The FLHASc ranges from 0 to 6 with a prognostic accuracy of 78% (IC 95%, 68-88%). The primary outcome incidence is 2.4% (IC 95%, 0.2-8.2%) in patients with a FLHASc equal to zero (n = 85, 43%) versus 13.4% (IC 95% 7.8-21.1%) in patients with a FLHASc > 0 (p < 0.01). Among patients with a FLHASc equal to zero, a negative chest X-ray study identifies patients who may be safely discharged. Patients who presented to the ED with haemoptysis experience a heterogeneous management. We derive a simple clinical prognostic score that may rationalize their diagnostic workup.
PMID: 28160237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]