Pedal Edema as an Indicator of Early Heart Failure in the Community: Prevalence and Associations With Cardiac Structure/Function and Natriuretic Peptides (MESA [Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis]).
Circ Heart Fail. 2016 Dec;9(12):
Authors: Yeboah J, Bertoni A, Qureshi W, Aggarwal S, Lima JA, Kawel-Boehm N, Bluemke DA, Shah SJ
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pedal edema (PE) and its associations with abnormal cardiac structure/function, natriuretic peptides, and incident heart failure (HF) is unknown, especially in community-dwelling adults without a history of cardiovascular disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of 5004 MESA (Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants who had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 4196 had complete data and were included in this analysis (3501 for the right ventricle analysis). Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess the associations among self-reported PE, 2-pillow orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, left and right ventricular structure and function, natriuretic peptide levels, and incident HF. PE was present in 28% of the participants. PE was not associated with overt left or right ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%). PE was associated with 2-pillow orthopnea (odds ratio 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-2.12), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (odds ratio 1.95; 95% CI, 1.55-2.44), and abnormal N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (defined as >400 pg/mL; odds ratio 1.80; 95% CI, 1.21-2.68) in adjusted models. After a mean of 10.2 years of follow-up, 184/4196 (4.4%) participants had an adjudicated incident HF hospitalization. PE was associated with incident HF hospitalization in models adjusted for age, sex, and race (hazard ratio 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.97). This association persisted after adding additional covariates, including comorbidities, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, and antecedent myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-1.99). The association of PE with incident HF was attenuated by further adjustment for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.
CONCLUSIONS: PE is prevalent in community-dwelling adults without clinically recognized cardiovascular disease and associated with future hospitalized HF.
PMID: 27923806 [PubMed - in process]