Efficacy of Clarithromycin-Naproxen-Oseltamivir Combination in the Treatment of Patients Hospitalized for Influenza A(H3N2) Infection: An Open-label Randomized, Controlled, Phase IIb/III Trial.
Chest. 2017 May;151(5):1069-1080
Authors: Hung IFN, To KKW, Chan JFW, Cheng VCC, Liu KSH, Tam A, Chan TC, Zhang AJ, Li P, Wong TL, Zhang R, Cheung MKS, Leung W, Lau JYN, Fok M, Chen H, Chan KH, Yuen KY
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes excessive hospitalizations and deaths. The study assessed the efficacy and safety of a clarithromycin-naproxen-oseltamivir combination for treatment of serious influenza.
METHODS: From February to April 2015, we conducted a prospective open-label, randomized, controlled trial. Adult patients hospitalized for A(H3N2) influenza were randomly assigned to a 2-day combination of clarithromycin 500 mg, naproxen 200 mg, and oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily, followed by 3 days of oseltamivir or to oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily without placebo for 5 days as a control method (1:1). The primary end point was 30-day mortality. The secondary end points were 90-day mortality, serial nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) virus titer, percentage of neuraminidase-inhibitor-resistant A(H3N2) virus (NIRV) quasispecies, pneumonia severity index (PSI), and duration of hospital stay.
RESULTS: Among the 217 patients with influenza A(H3N2) enrolled, 107 were randomly assigned to the combination treatment. The median age was 80 years, and 53.5% were men. Adverse events were uncommon. Ten patients died during the 30-day follow-up. The combination treatment was associated with lower 30-day mortality (P = .01), less frequent high dependency unit admission (P = .009), and shorter hospital stay (P < .0001). The virus titer and PSI (days 1-3; P < .01) and the NPA specimens with NIRV quasispecies ≥ 5% (days 1-2; P < .01) were significantly lower in the combination treatment group. Multivariate analysis showed that combination treatment was the only independent factor associated with lower 30-day mortality (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.004-0.94; P = .04).
CONCLUSIONS: Combination treatment reduced both 30- and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Further study of the antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of this combination treatment of severe influenza is warranted.
TRIAL REGISTRY: BioMed Central; No.: ISRCTN11273879 DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN11273879; URL: www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN11273879.
PMID: 27884765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]