The Effects of Pre-Existing Hyponatremia and Subsequent-Developing Acute Kidney Injury on In-Hospital Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0162990
Authors: Lee SW, Baek SH, Ahn SY, Na KY, Chae DW, Chin HJ, Kim S
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Both hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common and harmful in hospitalized patients. However, their combined effects on patient mortality have been little studied.
METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 19191 adult patients who were admitted for 1 year. Pre-existing hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level < 135 mmol/L on the first measurement of their admission. AKI was defined as a rise in serum creatinine by ≥ 26.5 μmol/L or ≥ 1.5 times of the baseline value of creatinine during the hospital stay.
RESULTS: The prevalence of pre-existing hyponatremia was 8.2%. During a median 6.0 days of hospital stay, the incidence rates of AKI and in-hospital patient mortality were 5.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Pre-existing hyponatremia independently predicted AKI development and in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.300, P = 0.004; HR 2.481, P = 0.002, respectively). Pre-existing hyponatremia and subsequent development of AKI increased in-hospital mortality by 85 times, compared to the patients with normonatremia and no AKI. In subgroup analysis, the AKI group showed higher rates of de novo hypernatremia than the non-AKI group during the admission. De novo hypernatremia, which might be associated with over-correction of hyponatremia, increased in-hospital mortality (HR 3.297, P <0.001), and patients with AKI showed significantly higher rates of de novo hypernatremia than patients without AKI (16.2% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Pre-existing hyponatremia may be associated with the development of AKI in hospitalized patients, and both hyponatremia and hospital-acquired AKI could have a detrimental effect on short term patient mortality, which might be related to the inappropriate correction of hyponatremia in AKI patients.
PMID: 27622451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]